Ancient Rome and Greece

There is a quality of cohesiveness about the Roman world that applied neither to Greece nor perhaps to any other civilization, ancient or modern. Like the stones of a Roman wall, which were held together both by the regularity of the design and by that peculiarly powerful Roman cement, so the various parts of the Roman realm were bonded into a massive, monolithic entity by physical, organizational, and psychological controls. The physical bonds included the network of military garrisons, which were stationed in every province, and the network of stone-built roads that linked the provinces with Rome. The organizational bonds were based on the common principles of law and administration and on the universal army of officials who enforced common standards of conduct(统一行动). The psychological controls were built on fear and punishment—on the absolute certainty(确定的事) that anyone or anything that threatened the authority of Rome would be utterly destroyed.

The source of the Roman obsession with unity and cohesion may well have lain in the pattern of Rome’s early development. Whereas Greece had grown from scores of(许多) scattered cities, Rome grew from one single organism. While the Greek world had expanded along the Mediterranean sea lanes, the Roman world was assembled by territorial conquest. Of course, the contrast is not quite so stark: in Alexander the Great the Greeks had found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once they moved outside Italy, did not fail to learn the lessons of sea power. Yet the essential difference is undeniable. The key to the Greek world lay in its high-powered ships; the key to Roman power lay in its marching legions. The Greeks were wedded to the sea; the Romans, to the land. The Greek was a sailor at heart; the Roman, a landsman.

Certainly, in trying to explain the Roman phenomenon, one would have to place great emphasis on this almost animal instinct for the territorial imperative(领土必要性). Roman priorities lay in the organization, exploitation, and defense of their territory. In all probability it was the fertile plain of Latium, where the Latins who founded Rome originated, that created the habits and skills of landed settlement, landed property, landed economy, landed administration, and a land-based society. From this arose the Roman genius for military organization and orderly government. ==In turn, a deep attachment to the land(修饰 attachment), and to the stability(修饰 attachment) which rural life engenders(乡土生活产生了 stability), fostered the Roman virtues: gravitas, a sense of responsibility(解释 gravitas), peitas, a sense of devotion to family and country(解释peitas), and iustitia(解释iustitia), a sense of the natural order.==

Modern attitudes to Roman civilization range from the infinitely impressed to the thoroughly disgusted. As always, there are the power worshippers(崇拜力量的人), especially among historians, who are predisposed to admire whatever is strong, who feel more attracted to the might of Rome than to the subtlety of Greece. At the same time, there is a solid body of opinion that dislikes Rome. For many, Rome is at best the imitator and the continuator of Greece on a larger scale. Greek civilization had quality; Rome, mere quantity. Greece was original; Rome, derivative. Greece had style; Rome had money. Greece was the inventor; Rome, the research and development division. Such indeed was the opinion of some of the more intellectual Romans. “Had the Greeks held novelty in such disdain as we,” asked Horace in his Epistles, “what work of ancient date would now exist?”(两个双引号的话是连着的,倒装句,虚拟时态)

Rome’s debt to Greece was enormous. The Romans adopted Greek religion and moral philosophy. In literature, Greek writers were consciously used as models by their Latin successors. It was absolutely accepted that an educated Roman should be fluent in Greek. In speculative philosophy and the sciences, the Romans made virtually no advance on early achievements.

Yet it would be wrong to suggest that Rome was somehow a junior partner in Greco-Roman civilization. The Roman genius was projected into new spheres—especially into those of law, military organization, administration, and engineering. Moreover, the tensions that arose within the Roman state produced literary and artistic sensibilities of the highest order. It was no accident that many leading Roman soldiers and statesmen were writers of high caliber.

words:

regularity 端正

peculiarly 不寻常地

cement 水泥,胶合剂

realm 领域

monolithic 庞大的,巨石的,整体的(mono单个+lithic石头)

garrison 驻军,要塞

scores of 许多

sea lane 航线

conquest 征服 conquer

stark 鲜明的

legion 军团

wed 执着于,献身;已婚

emphasis emphasize

imperative 紧急的

priority 优先

plain 平原

engender 产生引起

foster 促进,培养

worshipper 崇拜者,崇拜上帝

predispose 倾向于(pre+dispose,提前放置)

might 强大力量

subtlety subtle

mere 仅

derivative 模仿的,衍生物

novelty 新奇

speculative philosophy 思辨哲学

fixation on 痴迷于

文章结构分析

第一段,罗马帝国 unity 的手段;

第二段,罗马痴迷于 unity 的来源,以及和希腊的对比

第三段,罗马 territorial 的来源,Latin 人

第四段,现代历史学家对于罗马的评价,极好与极坏

第五段,在极坏的评价中,提到了一些优点

题目解析

According to paragraph 4, intellectual Romans such as Horace held which of the following opinions about their civilization?

  • A.

    Ancient works of Greece held little value in the Roman world.

  • B.

    The Greek civilization had been surpassed by the Romans.

  • C.

    Roman civilization produced little that was original or memorable.

  • D.

    Romans valued certain types of innovations that had been ignored by ancient Greeks.

C,对第四段最后一句话的理解

Q.E.D.


To baldly -_- go no man has gone before